The Unaccountables are persons of responsibility in political, legal, administrative, business, social (or public) and professional setups, who are under the obligation of ensuring accountable, transparent and compliant actions (Translated and Adapted from Treccani Dictionary 2019).
They are individuals who have access to information on every aspect of an organization (political, legal, administrative, business, social, public and professional), including the management indicators and budget preparation and communication tools to make decisions, activities and results visible, transparent and compliant. They are also persons who are required to ensure compliance, transparency with the rules, intended both as a guarantee of the legitimacy of the action and as an adjustment of the action to the standards set by laws, regulations, ethical guidelines or codes of conduct. In these respects, the Unaccountables have an obligation to explain and justify their's own compliant and transparent behaviour (Translated and Adapted from Treccani Dictionary 2019).
Typologies of Unaccountability:
- Different types of unaccountability can be distinguished according to
- political unaccountability;
- legal unaccountability;
- administrative unaccountability;
- business unaccountability;
- social (or public) unaccountability; and
- professional unaccountability.
- corporate unaccountability;
- hierarchical unaccountability;
- collective unaccountability; and
- professional unaccountability,
- financial unaccountability;
- procedural unaccountability; and
- product unaccountability.
- vertical unaccountability refers to non transparent and compliant actions towards individuals in a determined society;
- horizontal unaccountability refers to non transparent and compliant actions towards different social and professional groups in a determined society; and
- diagonal unaccountability refers to non transparent and compliant actions alongside individuals and groups in a determined society;(Translated and adapted from Treccani Dictionary 2019).
the nature of the stakeholders:
the nature of the person called to be held responsible for their actions:<
The Unaccountables, Illegality and Violation of Norms
- regulatory laws;
- civil laws;
- criminal laws;
- statutory laws;
- private law (particular law);
- tax laws; and
- trade laws.
The Unaccountables are persons of responsibility in political, legal, administrative, business, social (or public) and professional setups, who are under the obligation of ensuring accountable, transparent and compliant actions.
The Unaccountables often have Assistant Unaccountables who help them in committing their white-collar crimes. The Unacccountables establish vicious Assistantships in Unaccountability Relationships. Assistant Unaccountables tend to be manipulated by their bosses. “‘Dog helps Dog' Behaviour.
The Unaccountables are also "élites délinquantes": delinquent elites (Lascoumes and Nagels 2014). “Elite offenders” with a respectable and seemingly accountable appearance (see, for instance, Coleman 2006, p. 236).
The Unaccountables establish and are part of unaccountable collusive networks (brothers and sisters in a collusive criminal network) who may engage in different corruptive activities.
The Unaccountables do not perceive themselves as criminals. They perceive themselves as legitimate authorities of compliance or, in case, non-compliance and non-transparency.
The Unaccountables are both men and women.
The mean age of the Unaccountables mostly corresponds to the mean age of White-Collar Criminals, as their main crimes often correspond to white-collar offenses.
In this sense, like White-Collar Crime, the Unaccountables can be seen as a variant of organized crime.
The majority of the Unaccountables are public officials with collusive relationships.
The Unaccountables have higher level of socioeconomic status in terms of prestige, income and education than blue collar workers.
As for White-Collar Criminals (Alalehto 2015, p.31), Greed remains a main motivational factor for the Unaccountables, BUT ALSO reasons related to the enhancement of their political, legal, administrative, business, social milieu and professional setup's profits.
Similarly to White-Collar Crime, their pattern of criminal thinking does not depend on a temporary moral lapse (‘out of character’ act) but it must be understood as common criminal behaviour and thinking (see, of instance, Perri 2011). They do not act out of impulse.
- cold and exploitative;
- organized planners.
- In short, they are 'particular kind of psychopathic criminals' (see, for instance, Perri 2011, p. 233).
Self-control: antisocial conduct problems are rather small. Almost 50 percent of street criminals have, instead, antisocial conduct problems (see, for instance, Alalehto 2015).
As in the case of White-Collar Criminals, the Unaccountables display a “‘Dog Eat Dog' Behaviour: A mix of unique personality traits - - and behaviours: sense of noble entitlement to unaccountable actions (sense of entitlement to special privileges and resources); propensity to deceive; to cheat; to manipulate; lack of empathy and remorse; view others and bills as merely resources to be exploited— callously and without regret; They deceive, exploit, and manipulate others and statements for personal, political, legal, administrative, business, social (or public) and professional gain, such as money, power or status” (see, for instance, DSM IV Task - Force 1994; Barnard 2008; quoted in Perri 2011, p. 221, 224).
- analytical justifications;
- “hurt others”;
- “blame institutional rules for deserving of their unaccountability”;
- “minimize the harmful consequences of the fraud”; and
- “display arrogant indifference” (see, for instance, DSM IV Task Force - 1994; Barnard 2008; Perri 2011, p. 224).
Pervasive Pattern of Grandiosity: The Unaccountables exploit victims', institutions', and business':
- good intentions; and
- weaknesses for their crimes.
“Need for para-legal admiration;
- lack of empathy for others;
- belief that one is:
- chosen accountable, transparent, compliant.
Obsessed with enhancing bill power and control (see, for instance, Bucy et al. 2008, p.417; Antar 2009, para.31; quoted in Perri 2011, p.225).
The Unaccountables may ‘fear being caught'. That's why they find analytical excuses for their frauds.
The Unaccountables can establish emotional bonds with their institutions, agencies and firms (as psychopaths), but they do not form empathetic attachments with accountable individuals (see, for instance, Carozza 2008, p. 42, quoted in Perri 2011, p. 226).
They do not held themselves responsible for the consequences of their fraudolent actions (adapted from Perri and Mieczkowska 2015; Perri et al 2016).
As a variant of White-Collar Crime, the Unaccountables may be vendicative individuals. The Unaccountables may often commit crimes whose amounts sum up to, at least, four mafia clans (anonymous sources).
The Unaccountables tend to be Tax Offenders. And they offend the society.
The Unaccountables codes of their underworld:
- a particular code of unaccountability silence.
The Unaccounatables may 'resort to violence, namely homicide, to prevent their fraud schemes from being discovered and revealed' (see also Perri 2011, p.217). Not rarely, they may eliminate witnesses (ibid.)
The Political, Legal, Administrative, Business, Social Milieu and Professional Advantage: The Importance of political, legal, administrative, business, social milieu and professional legacy, devise and gifts for Private and/or Corporate Wealth Accumulation.
Markets of Unaccountability
The Unaccountables Promote the Formation of "Unaccountability Illegal Markets".
The Côtelettes and Champagne Detail
See ANNEX and the TaxMan Approasch (as the French say) in the enclosed DocumentsWhite-Collar Crime EN White-Collar Crime FR White-Collar Crime ES
Please be aware of the Italian "Condono" (literally "Cum Donum" or "With Present") mostly a little fine that washes out the penal relevance of the White-Collar Crime.
The Unaccountables May Represent:
A Threat to the Order and Fragility of Political, Legal, Administrative, Business, Social (or Public) and Professional Setups. In short, they represent a threat to the society, as a whole. 1 Euro cent of unaccountable money dering from a fraud can correspond to 5 million Euros of damage for the Accountable Citizen);
A Threat to Moral Political, Legal, Administrative, Business, Social (or Public) and Professional Values;
Transmission Mechanisms of Economic and Fiscal Crisis;
A Threat to Public Debt Consolidation;
A Threat to Capitalist Dynamics;
A Threat to the Quality of Business and of Government;
A Threat to the Quality of Democracy;
An Emerging Threat to Capitalism and Democracy;
A Real Threat to Society.
Accountability Glossary of Terms
Glossary of Good Governance Active Measures
Accountability: “the fact of being responsible for your decisions or actions and expected to explain them when you are asked. Accountability of somebody to somebody” (Oxford Dictionaries 2019). More in details: “Along with the concept of responsibility, accountability implies transparency and compliance. The first is intended as access to information on every aspect of the organisation, including management indicators and budget preparation and communication tools to make decisions, activities and results visible. The second refers to compliance with the rules and is intended both as a guarantee of the legitimacy of the action and as an adjustment of the action to the standards set by laws, regulations, ethical guidelines or codes of conduct. In these respects, accountability can also be defined as an obligation to explain and justify one's own behaviour. Different types of accountability can be distinguished according to the nature of the stakeholders (accountability: political, legal, administrative, social and professional), the nature of the person called to be held responsible for their actions (corporate accountability, hierarchical accountability, collective accountability or professional accountability, nature of conduct (financial accountability, procedural accountability or product accountability), the nature of the obligation (vertical accountability, diagonal accountability or horizontal accountability).” (Translated from Treccani Dictionary 2019).
Compliance: compliance (with something) “the practice of obeying rules or requests made by [THE] PEOPLE in authority” (Oxford Dictionaries 2019).
Co-optation: the capacity of the ruling elite to bind strategic actors via formal and informal institutions.
Corruption: "Related Entries: Dishonest, Immoral. [...] The act or effect of making somebody change from moral to immoral standards of behaviour." (Oxford Dictionaries 2019).
Governance: ”the activity of governing a country or controlling a company or an organization; the way in which a country is governed or a company or institution is controlled” (Oxford Dictionaries 2019)
Naming and Shaming: “the activity of saying publicly that a person, company, etc. has behaved in a bad or illegal way” (Cambridge Dictionary 2019).
Politics of the Belly (Politique du Ventre): While it is possible to affirm that political leaders in [Senegal] have succeeded in avoiding the establishment of excessive privileges through better access to labour market, education and healthcare services, status differentials have, nonetheless, materialized between the elites and the rest of the population. This is what Jean François Bayart (2006) has referred to as ‘la politique du ventre’ (literally the ‘politics of the stomach’), meaning a self-referential politics of satisfaction of material needs put in place by the [African] elites at the expenses of the total population.
Responsibility: “a duty to deal with or take care of somebody/something, so that you may be blamed if something goes wrong” (Oxford Dictionaries 2019).
Transparency: “ the quality of something, such as glass, that allows you to see through it” (Oxford Dictionaries 2019).
Voter Re-Alignments: “the act of changing the position or direction of something [the voter] slightly” (Oxford Dictionaries 2019; see also Haggard and Kaufman 2008, 2016).
List of Required References
Alalehto, T. (2015), 'White Collar Criminals: The State of Knowledge', The Open Criminology Journal, 8, 28-35.
Barnard, J. W. (2008). Securities fraud, recidivism and deterrence. Penn State Law Review, 113(1), 189–227
Bayart, J.-F. (2006) L'Etat en Afrique : La Politique du Ventre, Paris: Fayard.
Bovens, M., Goodin, R. E. and Schillemans, T. (eds.) (2014), The Oxford Handbook of Public Accountability, Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Bucy, P. H., Formby, E. P., Raspanti, M. S., & Rooney, K. E. (2008). Why do they do it?: The motives, mores and character of white collar criminals. St. John’s Law Review, 82, 401–571.
Carozza, D. (2008). These men know ‘snakes in suits’. Fraud Magazine, 22 (4), 36–43.
Cerami, A. (2019), The Respectables. Les Entrepreneurs et les Entrepreneuses du Déshonneur: An Offer You Can’t Refuse! White-Collar Crime: A Guide for Law Enforcement Authorities, Judicial Authorities, Policy- and Decision-Makers & (A Possible Movie Script), presentation available in ENGLISH (PDF) (DOI: 10.13140/RG.2.2.20392.52481).
Coleman, J. W. (2006), The Criminal Elite: Understanding White-Collar Crime. New York: Worth Publishers.
DSM IV Task Force. (1994). Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th ed.). Washington, D.C: American Psychiatric Association.
Lascoumes, P. and Nagels, C. (2014). Sociologie des élites délinquantes:De la criminalité en col blanc à la corruption politique [Sociology of delinquent Elites: from white-collar crime to political corruption]. Paris: Armand Colin.
Perri, S. (2011), 'White Collar Criminals: The ‘Kinder, Gentler’ Offender?', - J. Investig. Psych. Offender Profil. 8: 217–241.
Perri, F.S. and Mieczkowska, E.M. (2015) I didn't intend to deceive anyone', Fraud rationalizations and the guilty mind , Fraud Magazine March/April: 44-47.
Perri, F.S. (2016),Red Collar Crime, International Journal of Psychological Studies; Vol. 8, No. 1, pp.61-84.
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